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Amino Acid
One of twenty different molecules that combine to form peptides and longer proteins. The specific amino acid sequence of a peptide or protein is governed by the nucleotide sequence contained in the gene coding for it. The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines the protein’s structure and function.
A compound that resembles another in structure but may be different in function.
Animal Model
A collection of characteristics in an animal, which closely resemble a human disorder, and is used to study the cause of the disease and its treatment.
A specialized protein with constant and variable regions called an immunoglobulin, produced by the B lymphocyte cells of the immune system, which recognizes a particular antigen.
Antibody Microarray
A collection of primary antibodies that are printed on the surface of a microscope-sized slide for the purpose of capture of specific target proteins in crude cell and tissue lysates.
Any substance capable, under appropriate conditions, of inducing the formation of an antibody and of reacting specifically in some detectable manner with the antibody so induced. Antigens may be soluble substances, such as synthetic peptides and foreign proteins, or particulates, such as bacteria and tissue cells.
The process of orderly, programmed cell death without induction of an immune reaction with inflammation.
A collection of probes (DNA or protein) or cell/tissue extracts that are printed on the surface of a slide or membrane in a uniform pattern.
A physical, biological or chemical procedure whereby the relationship/dependency between two variables can be explored.
Adenosine triphosphate, which serves as a donor of a phosphate group for transfer onto target proteins by protein kinases. ATP is the main source of stored energy to drive all of the chemical reactions in cells. It is also used as a building block for the construction of DNA and RNA.
The application of advanced computing analysis of data from biological systems, including genomic and proteomic information.
Cell Line
Cells which grow and replicate continuously outside of the living organism under controlled culture conditions.
Cell-based Assay
A measure of physiological activity which utilizes cells grown in culture.
An important treatment modality that utilizes chemical compounds to treat human disorders of diverse causes such as infectious and cancer diseases.
A secreted product of white blood cells which can lead to functional activation of other inflammatory cells. It can also more loosely refer to any cell produced extracellular factor that regulates cells.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
The molecular structures containing the genetic information governing all functional characteristics of living organisms. DNA is made of two long polymer strands of interconnected nucleotides which are base paired. DNA usually but not always exists in nature as a double-stranded molecule and is found in the nucleus of all higher organisms.
Diabetes Mellitus
A disorder in which there is impairment of regulation of cellular glucose uptake/metabolism, due to a deficiency of, or insensitivity to insulin.
DNA Sequence
The order of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule.
A characteristic, usually highly conserved sequence of amino acids within a protein conferring functional specificity.
Drug Target
A molecule of any type (such as a protein target) whose function may be interfered with using chemical compounds.
Producing or sure to produce a desired effect.
A protein that performs a catalytic function in living cells.
Enzyme Assay
A procedure in which the catalytic activity of an enzyme is measured.
Descriptive of an event or substance that occurs outside the cell.
Functional Proteomics
The study of the functions of proteins and their interrelationships.
Gene Expression
The process of conversion of a DNA sequence (gene) into a specific protein. This process has two major steps, referred to as transcription (the formation of messenger RNA) and translation (the formation of protein).
The total sum of genes and additional DNA present in the chromosomes of a particular organism. Thus, the complete set of DNA sequences present in the twenty-three chromosomes of a human is referred to as the human genome.
Pertaining to the study of the genome or genomic material composed of DNA.
High Throughput Screening
A mechanized procedure in which hundreds to thousands of compounds are tested for their ability to influence a biological function.
Immune System
The full complement of tissues, cells and their effector molecules that comprise the body’s defence against foreign organisms.
in silico
Pertaining to activities undertaken through computer simulations. Translated from "in silicon".
in vitro
Pertaining to biological reactions or processes taking place outside the living body; sometimes used to include the growth of cells from multicellular organisms under cell culture conditions. Translated from "in glass".
in vivo
Pertaining to biological reactions or processes taking place in a living cell or organism. Translated from "in life".
Investigational New Drug Application - the document submitted to the FDA to obtain approval to test drugs in patients.
A compound which stops or attenuates a given function.
A protein produced by the pancreas in response to an elevated blood glucose that is responsible for glucose disposition.
Descriptive of an event or substance that occurs within a cell.
Intracellular Network
A group of proteins within cells which are involved in sequential functional interactions.
The subset of the cell’s proteome which represents all of its protein kinases.
A website-accessible databank with information about the expression and phosphorylation of proteins that was derived from the performance of Kinetworks™ and Kinex™ proteomics services.
A novel methods for analysis of the expression and state of activation of signal transduction proteins, including protein kinases.
Kinex™ Microarray
An array in the form of a microarray chip designed to quantitate the levels of various signal transduction proteins including protein kinases.
Bioinformatics specifically related to information about protein kinases.
Lead Compound
A chemical entity which has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic.
A large protein (e.g. enzyme), carbohydrate (e.g. glycogen) or nucleic acid (e.g. DNA).
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry. A methodology for analysis of molecules, including peptides and proteins, for their identification.
The analysis of the levels of small metabolites produced through the actions of the enzymes present in a cell or tissue. These metabolites may appear in various bodily fluids.
A grid of nucleic acids or proteins deposited, for example, on a silicon chip or glass slide.
Molecular Lesion
A defect in a cellular process at the level of a single protein which is causal of a disease.
Monoclonal Antibody
A single species of antibody which are produced by hybridomas. They recognize and bind extremely tightly to one specific antigen.
Permanent change in at least one nucleotide base in a DNA sequence. It may also refer to the corresponding change in at least one amino acid in a protein sequence.
A hormone released from neurons that activates receptors in target cells in the body.
Nucleic Acid
DNA or RNA formed by the polymerization of nucleotides; they are found in all living cells and use the genetic code to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next.
The basic molecular structure of genetic material, both DNA and RNA. It is composed of a sugar group, a phosphate group, and a base structure [Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytidine (C) in DNA, with Uracil (U) replacing Thymine in RNA].
The DNA containing body in a living cell which is surrounded by a membrane (nuclear membrane). It contains the genetic material that govern cell growth and reproduction.
The basic molecular structure of genetic material, both DNA and RNA. It is composed of a sugar group, a phosphate group, and a base structure [Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytidine (C) in DNA, with Uracil (U) replacing Thymine in RNA].
Short chains of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.
Any gene that is capable of resulting in a cancerous properties whether expressed in cells in culture or when injected in a suitable format into immune compromised mice.
A protein that is encoded by an oncogene.
The branch of medicine that deals with the study of tumours.
Peptide antibody mimetic - an artificially designed and synthesized peptide that has high affinity binding to a target protein.
Pertaining to deranged/abnormal physiology.
A polymer consisting of a sequence of amino acids connected by peptide bonds.
The process whereby a phosphate group is transferred from ATP to a recipient molecule on one of its tyrosine, serine, histidine or threonine residues.
Refers to the animal testing phase prior to when a drug is first tested in human subjects.
Primary Structure
The sequence of amino acids that define a unique protein and ultimately its three-dimensional structure.
An enzyme that degrades other proteins.
A protein is composed of a chain of interlinked amino acids. Twenty amino acids have been identified as necessary for body growth, development and health. The order and composition of these amino acids in a protein dictate its function and how it is regulated. Proteins are required for the structure, function and regulation of the body’s cells, tissues and organs.
Protein Kinase
A protein which undergoes, and is itself able to effect, a structural modification of a downstream protein consequent upon the transfer of one or more phosphate groups.
Protein Phosphatase
An enzyme that removes a phosphate group from another protein.
The analysis of the levels of production and modification of the different proteins present in a cell or tissue.
A protein bound within or on cell membranes (such as a neurotransmitter or drug). Receptors are part of the mechanism by which cells communicate.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA)
DNA formed by joining separate specific nucleotide sequence pieces isolated from different organisms. The pieces are generated using restriction enzymes, and are spliced together using special ligating enzymes.
A protein bound within or on cell membranes (such as a neurotransmitter or drug). Receptors are part of the mechanism by which cells communicate.
Reverse Array
An array of cell/tissue extracts that are printed, for example, on a nitrocellulose membrane, that can be probed with an antibody to track the behaviour of a specific protein in diverse experimental model systems.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
A polymer of ribonucleotides constructed in cells by the transcription of a DNA template and found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of all cells. The chemical structure of RNA is similar but not identical to DNA in that it contains a ribose sugar, not deoxyribose. When the RNA molecule serves as an intermediary in gene expression, the RNA is known as messenger RNA (mRNA) and is the template for translation to form protein.
Robotic Screening
A mechanized assay system designed to screen several compounds for their ability to influence a given biological function.
Secondary Structure
The local three-dimensional structure of short regions of a unique protein.
The two principal amino acids that undergo phosphorylation catalyzed by the majority of protein kinases.
Signal Transduction
The process analogous to electrical circuits whereby a biochemical signal is relayed through several components by the successive conformational changes.
Signalling Pathway
Refers to the established components of a pathway which may originate at cell membrane receptors and conclude at the level of transcription factors.
The molecular entity affected by the catalytic activity of a specific enzyme.
The formation of compounds by the union of simple compounds or elements.
Synthetic Compound
A compound which is made by chemical means in the laboratory as opposed to naturally occurring.
Target Identification
The process whereby key biological molecules, usually proteins, are identified as having some association with a disease or physiological process.
Target Validation
The process whereby an identified molecule is shown to play an integral role in the causation of a particular disease or physiological process.
Tertiary Structure
The overall three-dimensional folded structure of a complete protein as determined by x-ray crystallography. The structure of a protein defines its unique activity.
Tissue Array
An array of tissue slices that are deposited, for example, on a glass slide, that can be probed with an antibody to track the location of a specific protein in diverse organs by immunohistochemistry.
A condition that results from exposure to a poison or to poisonous amounts of a substance that does not cause side effects in smaller amounts but can exert harmful side effects in large doses.
The process by which a gene is actively used to create a mRNA molecule.
Transcription Factor
A protein that modulates transcription of genes and is regulated by protein phosphorylation.
The process by which a mRNA is actively used to produce a protein.
Tumour Suppressor Protein
A protein that acts as a checkpoint control to prevent cell growth and division. It may induce an apoptotic program of cell death to prevent cancer.
An amino acid that can be phosphorylated by a small subset of protein kinases.